In C, the ! (“logical NOT”) operator used on a value x evaluates to 0 when x is not 0, and 1 when x is 0. In other words, it’s equivalent to the following C:
(x == 0) ? 1 : 0
How should this be implemented in x86 assembly language, when “x” is already in a register? The target register can either be the same one, or it can be a different one. I didn’t try too hard and got 7 bytes; it can probably be made better. On other CPUs, it can be done in a single instruction. For example, in MIPS: “sltiu dest, src, 1”.
Note that this is about the case where the compiler doesn’t know how the result of the ! is used, as in “return !x;” in a non-inlined function. Cases like “if (!x)” are simpler.
(If you want to share how easily it can be done on *your* favorite CPU, please post a comment as well!)