Commodore KERNAL History

If you have ever written 6502 code for the Commodore 64, you may remember using “JSR $FFD2” to print a character on the screen. You may have read that the jump table at the end of the KERNAL ROM was designed to allow applications to run on a all Commodore 8 bit computers from the PET to the C128 (and the C65!) – but that is a misconception. This article will show how read more

80 Columns Text on the Commodore 64

The text screen of the Commodore 64 has a resolution of 40 by 25 characters, based on the hardware text mode of the VIC-II video chip. This is a step up from the VIC-20’s 22 characters per line, but since computers in the professional segment (Commodore PET 8000 series, CP/M, MS-DOS) usually had 80 columns, several solutions – both hardware and software – exist to allow 80 columns on a C64 as well. Let’s look at how this is done in software! At the end of this article, I present a fast and full-featured open source implementation with several different character sets. read more

Converting VisAss and F8 AssBlaster Source

If you have developed applications for the Commodore 64 in the 80s or 90s, chances are you still have your old floppy disk with the original assembly sources. If you have used the VisAss or
F8 AssBlaster assemblers, you can use a new command line tool I wrote to convert the encoded binary files into ASCII, so they can be published or you can continue development using modern tools like cc65. read more

Reverse-Engineered Final Cartridge III Source Code

The Final Cartridge III was one of the major multi-function extension cartridges for the Commodore 64. It contained BASIC extensions, floppy and tape speeders, centronics printer support, screen editor extensions including F-key shortcuts, a monitor, a freezer – and a GEOS-like windowing system called “Desktop”. In all this, the FC3 integrated seamlessly with the look-and-feel of the stock Commodore 64: It did not change anything (same screen colors and banner!), it only extended functionality in consistent ways. read more

Comparative C64 ROM Disassembly Study Guide

The Commodore 64 ROM has been subject to immense reverse engineering. Many commented disassemblies were published over the decades, scattered over different media such as books, magazines, disks, and later, the internet – and there are even some commentaries that apply to the C64 ROM, but were written with other systems in mind that shared Microsoft’s BASIC interpreter. read more

Fully Commented Commodore 64 BASIC ROM Disassembly – based on Microsoft’s Source

On my quest of collecting as many commentaries on the Commodore 64 ROM at pagetable.com/c64rom, we have gathered Lee Davison’s excellent commentary, the German de facto standard by Data Becker, and an adaptation of Bob Sander-Cederlof’s Apple II ROM commentary, all in the same cross-referenced HTML format. read more