by Sven Oliver ‘SvOlli’ Moll; the original German language version has been simultaneously posted on his blog.
This is an article about the 6502 processor about the topic: how to “waste” a number of clock cycles stated in a register, in this case the X register. The principle is simple: you have a number of operations that do close to nothing. The more the code is jumped to at the “front”, the more clock cycles are needed to get to the actual code. If the code is jumped to more at the “end”, the CPU gets to the code in question more quickly.
This nice theory won’t work directly on the 6502, because every instruction takes at least two clock cycles to execute. If you want to get it down to the precision of one cycle, this is getting more difficult. The first half of this trick I found in code of Eckhard Stollberg, who is one of the guys that pionieered homebrew on the Atari 2600 VCS. There, I found some strange bytes:
C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C9 C5 EA
The disassembly looks like this:
; CODE1 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP $EA ; 3
To run through the code, you’ll need 15 clock cycles, and nothing changes except for some state registers. If the code is called with an offset of one byte, this code will be processed:
; CODE2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C9 ; 2 CMP #$C5 ; 2 NOP ; 2
This makes 14 clock cycles, and only the status register will be changed. If the code is called with an offset of two bytes, it is started at the CODE1 segment at the second instruction. Add another one, you’ll get to the second instruction of the CODE2 segment, and so on. This way it is possible to specify the exact number of clock cycles to be “wasted”. With on exception: to be more specific there are 2 + X clock cycles that are wasted. There is no way to waste exactly one clock cycle.
Now we need a way to specify the “entry” of our “slide”. On a C=64 this would be done using self-modifying code. The operand of a JMP $XXXX instruction will be replaced with the calculated address. This is not possible on systems like the Atari 2600, since the code is run in ROM. One option for example would be to use JMP ($0080) after writing the entry point to $0080 and $0081.
My approach differs a bit from the usual way. RAM is scarce on the Atari, and I don’t want to “waste” up two of the 128 bytes available, when there is another way. When the CPU executes a JSR $XXXX (jump to subroutine) command, it writes the current address to the stack. To be more specific, it is the address of the JSR command + 2 which is the return address – 1. And this is what I do: I write my entry point – 1 to the stack and use the command RTS (return from subroutine) to jump into the clock slide. So, I’m still using two bytes of RAM, but only for a short time, without the need to evaluate which two bytes are available at this point.
; the X register specifies how many of the ; 15 clock cycles possible should be skipped LDA #>clockslide PHA TXA CLC ADC #<clockslide PHA STA WSYNC ; <= this syncs to start of next scanline clockslide: RTS CMP #$C9 CMP #$C9 CMP #$C9 CMP #$C9 CMP #$C9 CMP #$C9 CMP $EA realcode: ; and here the real code continues
This approach still has one problem: between “clockslide” and “realcode”, no page crossing may occur. If this were the case, I’d have to increase the high byte on the stack by one. But since the position of the code segments is under my control, I left this out as an exercise for the reader. ;-)