by Julien Oster, reprinted with permission.
While it has become far less relevant for non-system developers to write assembly than it was a few decades ago, by now CPUs have nevertheless made it much more comfortable to do so. Today we are used to a lot of things: fancy indirect addressing modes with scale, a galore of general purpose registers instead of an accumulator and maybe one or two crippled index registers, condition codes for nearly every instruction (on ARM)…
But also the basics themselves have evolved. Let’s take a look at what past programmers had to put up with in entirely simple, everyday things. We’ll start with the most trivial: writing to memory.
Our goal is to write a single immediate value of 3 into the memory location 5. In light of paging, segmenting and bank switching, we’ll use whatever is convenient as a definition for “memory location”. Also, we’ll let the CPU decide what the word size should be. Since you only need 2 bits to represent a 3, it should fit with every CPUs word size (except for 1 bit CPUs, which actually existed, but that’s a story for another posting). If we have the choice, we’ll just take the smallest.
We’ll work backwards, from the present to the past, to explore the wonders of direct addressing in Intel CPUs. (One precautionary warning though: I only really tested the 4004 code in an emulator, and my habits are highly tainted by current Intel CPUs. So if I made some mistake somewhere, kindly point it out and I’ll fix it!)
On a modern x86 CPU, it is of course fairly easy to write the value 3 to memory cell 5. You just do it:
mov byte , 3
A single instruction, simple and obvious. I cheated a bit by not using a segment prefix, nor did I set up any segment registers/selectors beforehand. But assuming a nowadays common OS environment in protected mode, you probably don’t want to fiddle with those selectors anyway.
The Intel 8085 is somewhat of a direct predecessor to the 8086, the first in the line of the excessively successful x86 processors. While the 8086 has a 16 bit data bus, the 8085 only has 8 bit. The address bus is already full 16 bit, but its 16 bit capabilities are limited. Specifically, there is no immediate 16 bit addressing (except for branches), leaving us no way to specify our memory location in the instruction that actually performs the move.
Memory is instead addressed with a pseudo register called M. This pseudo register is in reality just backed by the registers H and L paired together, each 8 bit wide, and accessing it accesses the memory location they point at (you may take a guess which register receives the High byte, and which the Low byte of the address).
Luckily, there are a few simple 16bit instructions for moving immediate values, so all in all we can write our byte with:
LXI H, 0005h ; unlucky syntax, as this actually means HL instead of just H
MOV M, 3
By the way, bonus points if you are somehow able to find out just when the address in HL is available on the address bus. The same applies to the 8080 and 8008. Does the CPU copy the register pair’s content to the address bus pins only when actual memory operations take place, or are the address bus pins somehow directly connected to H and L itself? Is that even feasible? I’d really like to find out…
We continue going further back, skipping the 8080 because it was identical in that regard, and arrive at its direct predecessor instead, the Intel 8008. The 8080 and 8085 were source compatible to the 8008 (which, mind you, is not the same as binary compatible… also it may or may not have required some light automated translation), but in the downward direction we have something vital taking from us: While already using 16bit addresses (with only a 14bit address bus, resulting in 16k memory, though), the only instructions that were allowed to contain 16bit immediate values at all are jumps and branches. Consequently, we are left with no way to completely specify our destination address in one instruction!
Instead, we have to access H and L, together forming pseudo register M’s address, one at a time:
It’s hardly possible to go back further than the Intel 4004, at least if you are only considering single chip CPUs (at the time of its conception in the early 70s, there were already famous multi-chip CPUs with comfortable orthogonal instruction sets, notably the PDPs). Indeed, it was the first widely available single chip CPU. This little thing was a 4-bit CPU with some strange quirks, which we will explore further. Overall, it bears little to no resemblance to its successor in name, the Intel 8008 (except for the internal stack, which both had–I will cover that in another posting).
But let’s just look at the code for writing a value of 3 into the memory location at 5 first:
FIM P0, 5; load address 05h into pair R0,R1
SRC P0 ; set address bus to contents of R0,R1
LDM 3 ; load 3 into accumulator
WRM ; write accumulator content to memory
That looks a bit strange.
As a 4 bit CPU, the 4004 has 4 bit wide registers and addresses 4 bit nibbles as words in memory. It has only one accumulator on which the majority of operations is performed, but sixteen index registers (R0-R15).
Those index registers are handy for accessing memory: Besides loading values directly from ROM, an instruction exists to load data indirectly, which sets the address bus to the ROM cell’s content. Another instruction performs an indirect jump instead. Other than that, you can just increment index registers, albeit there is the interesting “ISZ” instruction that not only increments, but also branches if the result is not 0.
Because the 4004 uses 8 bits to address the 4 bit nibbles, every two consecutive index registers form a pair, which is then used for memory references.
Note that I explicitly said ROM above. This is because in the 4004 architecture, ROM and RAM are actually vastly different beasts, at least from the assembly programmer’s perspective. You can not directly access RAM. It always involves index register pairs, manually sending their content to the address bus (with a strangely named instruction “SRC”, which for some reason spells out send register control) and then issuing another instruction which transfers from or to the accumulator.
Interestingly, accessing regular RAM nibbles is not your only choice among the transfer instructions. You can also fetch from and to I/O ports. But the CPU does not have any direct I/O port, instead they are available on both RAM and ROM! You can also read and write “RAM status characters”, which to me look like plain regular RAM cells within another namespace. If someone knows, I’d love to hear what they were used for (and if they maybe did behave differently to normal RAM).
Take a look at the data sheet. Within its only 9 pages, the instruction set is depicted on page 4 and 5. Especially in the light that fairly reasonable orthogonal instruction sets appear to have been available in multi-chip CPUs, this first single-chip CPU is clearly a strange specialization towards the desk calculator it was meant for (the Busicom 141-PF). It has the aforementioned index register-centered RAM access, separate ROM (although there is a transfer instruction which strangely refers to some optional “read/write program memory”), a three level internal stack which is almost useless for general purpose programming and a lone special purpose instruction for “keyboard process” (KBP).
Original 4004 CPUs go from anything from a few to a few thousand dollars on eBay, depending on their packaging and revision. If you’d like to, you can instead play around with a virtual one in this java-script based, fully fledged assembler, disassembler and emulator, or read the rescued source code of the Busicom 141-PF calculator. There’s lots more of schematics, data sheets and other resources on the Intel’s anniversary project page.
That is, if you are brave enough.