I have scanned and OCRed the included commented ROM disassembly before, it’s available here.
Rhapsody Developer’s Guide.
Boston: AP Professional, 1997.
(528 pages, 13.3 MB PDF)
Rhapsody Developer’s Guide provides a road map to Rhapsody technology and the ways it can be used. Based on a modern microkernel, Rhapsody runs on PowerPC and Intel processors, and supports traditional Mac OS applications (in the Blue Box) as well as modern applications in the Yellow Box. Totally object-oriented, the Yellow Box platform offers an unparalleled development environment that permits rapid implementation of functionality ranging from traditional personal computer applications to media-rich, Internet-enabled, and database-driven applications for the next century.
This book describes the architecture of Rhapsody, including its cross-platform implementation on PowerPC and Intel. It details the Yellow Box platform (based on OpenStep) and provides a complete description of the core API, as well as a description of the architecture that will be enriched in the future with additional functionality from Apple. The languages of Rhapsody are discussed, and the API is presented in a language-neutral way that will be convenient for C++ developers, classic and modem Objective-C users, and Java programmers. Throughout, there is an emphasis on how Rhapsody relates to existing investments in code and programming expertise. Screen shots and code samples from products shipping today using Rhapsody technology provide opportunities and challenges to new Rhapsody developers.
About the Author
Jesse Feiler is software director of the Philmont Software Mill. He is also the author of Cyberdog and Real World Apple Guide. He has served as a consultant, author, and speaker for many prestigious businesses, including the Federal Reserve Bank ofNew York, Prodigy, Kodak, Young & Rubicam, and Apple Computer, Inc.
In my quest to preserve retrocomputing documents, here is the invaluable book “Inside Commodore DOS”, which describes most of the internals of the Commodore 1541 disk drive. The scanning was done in 2002 by Kenneth S. Moore, who in 2005 released an OCRed version, which unfortunately replaced the original page images. My version here comes with the original page images and a table of contents, and is nevertheless fully searchable.
Here is a fun quote from the book by the way:
Over the years numerous writers have advised Commodore owners not to use the save and replace command because it contained a bug. Our study of the ROM routines and a lot of testing has convinced us that the bug in the replace command is a myth.
Of course, this is wrong. Don’t use “SAVE@” on a 1541.
This book is an indispensable reference guide and sourcebook for anyone using the new and powerful Commodore 128 computer. This machine has many new and exciting built-in features, such as the advanced BASIC programming language Version 7.0, superior graphics, and excellent sound and music capabilities. All information on these and other technical details, such as machine language programming, memory maps, input/output guide, pinout diagrams of primary chips, and schematics of the computer, are here in this, the only official Commodore 128 Programmer’s Reference Guide.
Whether you are a new user or an advanced programmer, you’ll benefit from all of the material in this book. Find out more about:
In my quest to preserve retrocomputing documents, here is the official Commodore 128 Programmer’s Reference Guide. As always, my scanned books come with a table of contents and are fully searchable.
The Commodore Plus/4, the C16 and the C116 from 1984 were members of the 6502-based “TED” series, named after the 7360 TED (“Text Editing Device”) video controller. The TED systems were basically the low-cost cousins of the C64: The overall system architecture and the video chip are very similar to the C64’s, but they lack certain features like hardware sprites. On the other hand, there are some added features like extra colors and more control over the internal timing of the video chip.
In the Commodore archive at zimmers.net, there is a collection of GIF images that are scans of the some very interesting technical documents on the TED series, originally provided by Tibor Biczo and published by William Levak and Marko Mäkelä. I sorted the pages and converted them into searchable PDFs that are much nicer to look at:
“TED System Hardware Manual”
(PDF, 48 pages, 7.6 MB)
“TED 7360R0 Preliminary Data Sheet” (Apr 1983)
(PDF, 23 pages, 5.8 MB)
“TED Extra Pages”
(PDF, 5 pages, 1.4 MB)
The “Extra Pages” contain a map of the circuit board, a Plus/4 memory map in German, a TED register map, and a German version of section 4.5.2 of the TED System Hardware Manual.
“Service Manual Model Plus 4 Computer.pdf” (Oct 1984, PN-314001-04)
(PDF, 25 pages, 4.9 MB)
The service manual is also taken from zimmers.net.
Modern filesystems are highly optimized database systems that are a core function of modern operating systems. They allow concurrent access by many CPUs, they keep locality up and fragementation down, and they can recover from crashes guaranteeing consistent data structures.
If you want to learn about the internals of modern filesystems, you can either read up on theory (e.g. Dominic Giampaolo’s excellent free book Practical File System Design), or you can dissect one using a tool like fileXray, which
- allows you to examine data structures on your Mac OS X HFS+ disk, like the volume header, the journal, regular and special files, etc., down to the B-tree level
- gives you insight into statistics like fragmentation and hot file clustering
- lets you find out where all these deleted files really go, and what forensic analysis can tell someone about your disks!
(German) Die QualitĂ¤t dieses Scans ist furchtbar, aber wenigstens ist die PDF durchsuchbar.
DAS STEHT DRIN:
In der dritten Ăźberarbeiteten Auflage finden Sie alles von der Hardware Ăźber den Betriebssystemkern EXEC bis zum DOS, alle entscheidenden Informationen zum Amiga. Und zwar so verstĂ¤ndlich, daĂ auch die Nicht-Profis unter Ihnen die Arbeitsweise des Amiga-Betriebssystems schnell verstehen werden.
Aus dem Inhalt:
UND GESCHRIEBEN HABEN DIESES BUCH:
Johannes Schemmel ist Hardware-Spezialist mit der FĂ¤higkeit, GesamtzusammenhĂ¤nge verstĂ¤ndlich darzustellen. Stefan Dittrich als 68000-Spezialist hat schon mit seinem Buch “Amiga Maschinensprache” dem interessierten AmigaAnwender gezeigt, welche FĂ¤higkeiten in dem Rechner stecken. Ralf Gelfand ist ausgefuchster Amiga-Programmierer, der spĂ¤testens seit dem groĂen Floppy-Buch zum Amiga ein Begriff ist.
The Copland project was Apple’s ill-fated attempt in the mid 1990s to replace the aging classic Mac OS with a more modern operating system that had a microkernel, virtual memory and preemptive multitasking. Information on Copland is scarce, therefore I have compiled 20 hard to find Copland reference documents, as well as the 359 page book “Mac OS 8 Revealed”.
Note that Copland was supposed to be the next major OS release after System 7, so the while the first two beta releases D7E1 and D9 were called “Copland”, the final beta D11E4 was called “Mac OS 8” everywhere. After the cancellation of the Copland project, Apple reused the term “Mac OS 8” for a System 7 update.
Copland D9 (Copland Developer Release – Tools Edition)
Copland D11E4 (Mac OS 8 DDK 0.4)
June 1996 (WWDC)
Tony Francis: Mac OS 8 Revealed
I publish these files for educational purposes, especially for all computer archeology enthusiasts like me. This data is copyrighted, but since the project has been canceled ~13 years ago, nobody should still care about it. If you disagree, contact me. Thanks to all the people who have worked on Copland and written these interesting documents!
The Apple Lisa from 1983 was the first consumer-class computer with a graphical user interface and significantly more advanced than the 1984 Macintosh, which had a similar UI, but a comparatively primitive underlying OS. Here, I present a searchable PDF of the rare “Operating System Reference Manual for the Lisa” (1983), as well as a quick overview of the OS and how it compares to UNIX.
“Operating System Reference Manual for the Lisa” (1983)
(PDF, 188 pages, 6.2 MB)
The OS Reference Manual is actually volume 3 of 3 of the Lisa Pascal documentation. As the last page states, the book was typeset on a Lisa and printed on a dot matrix printer.
I also converted the typewriter-written draft version from lisa.sunder.net into a searchable PDF:
“Lisa Operating System Reference Manual” (Draft March 1982)
(PDF, 113 pages, 1.2 MB)
In its spirit, the Lisa Operating System resembles UNIX a lot, and its features and details were pretty much on par with UNIX systems from that time.
Scheduling: Executable files are statically linked with the Pascal runtime, and they make syscalls into the kernel. The system manages processes (with a single thread of execution) with their own address spaces that are cooperatively scheduled (255 levels of priorities). A syscall or a code segment switch can yield the CPU. Processes are managed in a tree, and the death of a parent will kill its children.
Memory Management: There is no paging, but segmented memory (up to 106 code segments and 16 data segments), and explicit swapping of code and data pages. It is possible to write protect data segments.
Inter-Process Communication: Two processes can communicate through shared files on the filesystem, named pipes, event channels (blocking or callback messaging with typed data) and shared data segments. Exceptions are delivered as events.
Filesystem: The filesystem supports 32 character filenames and allows all ASCII characters except for “-“, which is the path separator. A path can be up to 255 characters; absolute paths start with “-” (processes have a working directory). There are no enforced extensions, but the convention is to use extensions for file types. Volumes can be mounted and unmounted, and accessed at the top level by using their device name or their volume name, if they are mounted. The serial (RS232A/RS323B) and parallel (PARAPORT) ports, stdio (MAINCONSOLE) and /dev/null (BITBKT) are
like character-devices and also accessible at the top level that also provide an ioctl-like interface (DEVICE_CONTROL).
File access goes through open/read/write/close. A file is associated with cdate, mdate, adate, a delete protection flag and an up to 128 character label. Apart from regular files, there are pipes, disk-mapped data segments and event channel files.
For safety, the on-disk data structures are very redundant. Every block contains context data like a size, name, filesize, forward/backward link, inode and position in file. Directories (catalogs) and the “medium descriptor data file” are managed just like regular files.
For Archimedes users who take their computing seriously, this guide to the Operating System gives you a real insight into the micro’s inner workings. The book is applicable to any model of Archimedes whether running the Arthur or RISC OS Operating Systems.
The Relocatable Module system is one of the many areas covered â its format is explained, and the information necessary to enable you to write your own modules and applications is provided. This tutorial approach is repeated through the book.
The sound system is explained and the text includes much information never before published.
The discerning user will revel in the wealth of information covering many aspects of Arthur and RISC OS including:
and much more…
Throughout the book, programs are used to provide practical examples to use side by side with the text, which go to make this publication the table-side companion for all Archimedes users.
Alex and Nic van Someren have both worked for Acorn Computers. Alex is a former Technical Editor of Acorn User magazine and author of numerous computer-related books.
In my quest to preserve retrocomputing documents, here is a very interesting reference of the orginal Acorn RISC Machine (ARM) computing platform and the RISC OS Operating System. Thanks to Dominik Wagner for the book. As always, my scanned books come with a table of contents and are fully searchable.