by Thomas Tempelmann, reprinted with permission.
Back in the 80s, the Commodore C-64 had an intelligent floppy drive, the 1541, i.e. an external unit that had its own CPU and everything.
The C-64 would send commands to the drive which in turn would then execute them on its own, reading files, and such, then send the data to the C-64, all over a propriatory serial cable.
The manual for the 1541 mentioned, besides the commands for reading and writing files, that one would read and write to its internal memory space. Even more exciting was that one could download 6502 code into the drive’s memory and have it executed there.
This got me hooked and I wanted to play with that – execute code on the drive. Of course, there was no documention on what code could be executed there, and which functions it could use.
A friend of mine had written a disassembler in BASIC, and so I read out all its ROM contents, which was 16KB of 6502 CPU code, and tried to understand what it does. The OS on the drive was quite amazing and advanced IMO – it had a kind of task management, with commands being sent from the communication unit to the disk I/O task handler.
I learned enough to understand how to use the disk I/O commands to read/write sectors of the disk. Actually, having read the Apple ]['s DOS 3.3 book which explained all of the workings of its disk format and algos in much detail, was a big help in understanding it all.
(I later learned that I could have also found reverse-eng'd info on the more 4032/4016 disk drives for the "business" Commodore models which worked quite much the same as the 1541, but that was not available to me as a rather disconnected hobby programmer at that time.)
Most importantly, I also learnt how the serial comms worked. I realized that the serial comms, using 4 lines, two for data, two for handshake, was programmed very inefficiently, all in software (though done properly, using classic serial handshaking).
Thus I managed to write a much faster comms routine, where I made fixed timing assumptions, using both the data and the handshake line for data transmission.
Now I was able to read and write sectors, and also transmit data faster than ever before.
Of course, it would have been great if one could simply load some code into the drive which speeds up the comms, and then use the normal commands to read a file, which in turn would use the faster comms. This was not possible, though, as the OS on the drive did not provide any hooks for that (mind that all of the OS was in ROM, unmodifiable).
Hence I was wondering how I could turn my exciting findings into a useful application.
Having been a programmer for a while already, dealing with data loss all the time (music tapes and floppy disks were not very realiable back then), I thought: Backup!
So I wrote a backup program which could duplicate a floppy disk in never-before seen speed: The first version did copy an entire 170 KB disk in only 8 minutes (yes, minutes), the second version did it even in about 4.5 minutes. Whereas the apps before mine took over 25 minutes. (Mind you, the Apple ][, which had its disk OS running on the Apple directly, with fast parallel data access, did this all in a minute or so).
And so FCopy for the C-64 was born.
It became soon extremely popular. Not as a backup program as I had intended it, but as the primary choice for anyone wanting to copy games and other software for their friends.
Turned out that a simplification in my code, which would simply skip unreadable sectors, writing a sector with a bad CRC to the copy, did circumvent most of the then-used copy protection schemes, making it possible to copy most formerly uncopyable disks.
I had tried to sell my app and sold it actually 70 times. When it got advertised in the magazines, claiming it would copy a disk in less than 5 minutes, customers would call and not believe it, “knowing better” that it can’t be done, yet giving it a try.
Not much later, others started to reverse engineer my app, and optimize it, making the comms even faster, leading to copy apps that did it even in 1.5 minutes. Faster was hardly possible, because, due to the limited amount of memory available on the 1541 and the C-64, you had to swap disks several times in the single disk drive to copy all 170 KB of its contents.
In the end, FCopy and its optimized successors were probably the most-popular software ever on the C-64 in the 80s. And even though it didn’t pay off financially for me, it still made me proud, and I learned a lot about reverse-engineering, futility of copy protection and how stardom feels. (Actually, Jim Butterfield, an editor for a C-64 magazine in Canada, told its readers my story, and soon he had a cheque for about 1000 CA$ for me – collected by the magazine from many grateful users sending 5$-cheques, which was a big bunch of money back then for me.)